Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres was a French Neoclassical painter. Deeply influenced by past artistic traditions, Ingres aspired to become the guardian of academic orthodoxy against the ascendant Romantic style.
Although he regarded himself as a painter of history in the tradition of Nicolas Poussin and Jacques-Louis David, it is his portraits that are recognized as his greatest legacy. Regarded as an important pioneer of modern art for his expressive distortions of form and space, he influenced Picasso, Matisse and other modernists.
He worked in Rome and Florence from 1806 to 1824, regularly sending his paintings to the Paris Salon, but was criticized by critics who evaluated his style as bizarre and archaic.
In 1824, when his Raphaelesque painting, “The Vow of Louis XIII”, was praised, he was finally recognized at the Salon, and again in 1833 with his “Portrait of Monsieur Bertin” reaped popular success.
The following year, however, his ambitious work, “The Martyrdom of Saint Symphorian,” was severely criticized and it caused him to return to Italy, and then he returned to Paris in 1841 to spend the rest of his life.
In his later years, he painted new versions of his early works, a series of designs for stained-glass windows, several important portraits of women, and “The Turkish Bath”, the last of his several female nude paintings showing Orientalism.